Read the text below about the soul and think of a word which fits in each gap. Use only one word in each gap.
People have always liked to believe that they possess something
than just a body. The magnificent Greeks called
something psyche, but the English gave it the slightly less poetic name of ‘soul’. The pre-Socratic philosopher Heraclitus thought that it is a fire that must not
dampened. For Plato (yes, the Plato you have in mind) it was the immortal home
reason and Aristotle (correct again, it’s him) saw in it the essence of every living thing. Plato divided the soul into reason, emotion, and desire. He claimed
all three parts of the soul must be kept in balance, so the training of reason is
important as non-rational forms of education (music, physical exercise etc.). He also believed that
rational part of the soul
immortal and so can move into another body, thus animals were thought
be reincarnations of people who had used their reason badly. Later on Aristotle argued that the soul, as an essence of living things, dies with the body. Although animals
evenplants have a soul, he claimed, they lack the rational part of it. And all this thinking was
spite of their belief that a person’s fate is entirely
the hands of the gods!
Read the text below about the smell of old books and decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fits in each gap.
I smell books. I
, before I buy them, not as a fetish that could ruin my private life. Honestly, there is nothing wrong with me in that sense. Quite an amusing pun, don’t you
Anyway, now I feel I must
that I do not—repeat do not (Do not!)—go about sniffing
volumes in libraries, forehead glistening with perspiration while my excited heart thumps. Sorry, sometimes I
carried away rather easily. Where was I? Yes, in a bookshop. That is, in a second-hand bookshop. New books have no history, so I don’t place any
on their odour. But old books, boy, have they got some past! What I do
I find a volume I would like to buy is to open it in the middle, insert my nose between the creamy-yellow pages until its
touches the tight spot of the binding, and then slowly inhale... And when the aroma is
, I move on to an assessment of the paper’s texture and page layout. Smell is not the only sense that needs pleasing, you
Read the text below about the history of women’s hairstyles in Japan. Use the word given in capitals at the end of some lines to form a word that fits in the gap in the same line.
men’s hairstyles, women’s chignons date back as far as the early
age of Asuka as a recognized art .But in terms of
sophistication, almost all
regard the Edo Period as the pinnacle HISTORY
of hair-styling. With its rich
in style, refinement of techniques,VARY
and multitude of
hairpins and other accessories, it also coincided ORNAMENT
of new sorts of kimono. Indeed, changes in hair-style APPEAR
tended to go hand in hand with new styles of dress. For many years preceding the Edo period, the official hair-style at court was
down long and straight and it maintained an authoritative WEAR
into the early Edo period. Women’s chignons originated from DOMINATE
an urge to get rid of long, official hairstyles in favour of something less
, lower maintenance and, better still, more visually COMFORT
. Piling the hair up on top seemed, as it does to this day, IMPRESS
the obvious solution.
Think of one word only which can be used appropriately in all three sentences.